Friday, 15 December, 2017

Found! farthest ever super big black hole

Astronomers Find the Earliest Supermassive Black Hole Ever Discovered Scientists find 'behemoth' black hole so big it could challenge our understanding of the universe's beginning
Garry Little | 08 December, 2017, 01:16

With a redshift of 7.5, the newly-discovered quasar began emitting light a mere 690 million years after the Big Bang, and the supermassive black hole at its center has 800 million times the mass of our Sun. The existence of this supermassive black hole when the Universe was only 690 million years old, just five per cent of its current age, reinforces early models of black hole growth that allow black holes with initial masses of more than about 10M⊙ (refs 2, 3) or episodic hyper-Eddington accretion. The earliest known quasar is located 13.04 billion light years from Earth and existed about 750 million years after the Big Bang.

The unexpected discovery was based on data gathered from observatories around the world.

Scientists have just discovered a supermassive black hole that existed surprisingly early in the history of the universe, and the puzzling find is shedding new light on when the first stars blinked on. For the goal of study of the effects these giant black holes have on the rest of the cosmos, researchers want to look at as many early supermassive black holes as possible. During its early stage, the universe went through what is sometimes called the Dark Age - not a metaphor, as it is for the human period, but a truly a dark age as there was no light.

"This adds to our understanding of our universe at large because we've identified that moment of time when the universe is in the middle of this very rapid transition from neutral to ionized", Simcoe says. Stars and galaxies were first resembling, and their radiation is ionising the around hydrogen gas to illustrate the universe. As more stars turned on throughout the universe, their photons reacted with neutral hydrogen, ionizing the gas and setting off what's known as the epoch of re-ionization. This is the point at which the universe became transparent to light.

Schematic representation at top of page of the look back into history that is possible by the discovery of the most distant quasar yet known. Banados suggest that there are more examples like this out there, between 20 and 100.

"The universe is full of surprises", Banados said.

A high redshift indicates great distance, and as light takes its sweet time getting to Earth from elsewhere in space (at 186,000 miles per second), science can use this to gauge how far back in time we're seeing something. The higher an object's redshift, the further away it is, both in space and time. Quasar light can be decoded to yield information about the hydrogen atoms the light has encountered along its billion-light-year-journey.

The object was studied using ground-based telescopes in Chile and Hawaii and NASA's orbiting Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE).

"With several next-generation, even-more-sensitive facilities now being built, we can expect many exciting discoveries in the very early universe in the coming years", Stern said. The other lead authors are from the Carnegie Institution for Science, in Pasadena, California.

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