Saturn moon ocean top contender for life beyond Earth
Saturn moon ocean top contender for life beyond Earth
Saturn's moon Enceladus
15 April, 2017, 06:09
Could there be life under the icy surface of Saturn's moon Enceladus?
Recently NASA scientists have observed some water like particles floating in and around the icy Moon of Saturn, Enceladus.
It is already known that three crucial ingredients are required for life to exist - water, right chemical matters which are the building blocks of life like carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulphur and a source of energy for metabolism.
Scientists additionally introduced new proof that Jupiter's moon Europa - more than six times greater than Enceladus - could have occasional emissions like ones originating from Saturn's moon.
On the Earth's ocean floor, hydrothermal vents emit hot, mineral-laden fluid, allowing unique ecosystems teeming with unusual creatures to thrive.
The hydrogen in the sub-surface ocean could combine with carbon dioxide molecules in a process known as "methanogenesis", which creates a byproduct of methane.
What NASA's Cassini spacecraft found "would be like a candy store for microbes", said Hunter Waite, lead author of the new study out this week.
"If there are plumes on Europa, as we now strongly suspect, with the Europa Clipper we will be ready for them", said James Green, NASA's Planetary Science Division Director.
Cassini scientists detected hydrogen molecules - which could potentially provide a chemical energy source for life - in water pouring into the subsurface ocean of Enceladus from hydrothermal activity on the seafloor.
Scientists at the Goddard Space Center compared ultraviolet photos the Hubble space telescope took of Europa in 2014, when it first saw the gaseous spray emanating from the moon, and found it again in a 2016 picture.
The Cassini spacecraft detected the hydrogen in a plume of gas and icy material spraying off Enceladus in October 2015. According to a paper by Cassini mission researchers, the moon is ejecting plumes of what turned out to be 98% water, 1% hydrogen, and other gases, including carbon dioxide, methane, and amonia. Through cracks on the façade of this frostbitten moon, misty plumes jet above the surface.
The observations were made previous year at the same location that the Hubble telescope saw evidence of a plume in 2014. Comparing it with thermal map that NASA's Galileo mission gathered in the 1990s, Hubble scientists discovered that the location corresponds to a thermal anomaly on Europa, a warm region on the otherwise frozen moon.
Sparks and his team are continuing to use Hubble to monitor Europa for additional examples of plume candidates and hope to determine the frequency with which they appear.
"The presence of hydrogen established another reference point saying there is hydrothermal activity inside this body, and that's interesting because we know in our own oceans, those are very important places that are teeming with life, and they are probably one of the earliest places where life happened on Earth".
"Most of us would be excited with any life", said Mary Voytek, an astrobiology senior scientist for NASA.
A race this close, with so many candidates, would seem to be more susceptible to being influenced by fake news. Increases in sent messages or repeated posting of similar content are examples of such patterns.
Prakash said the Pakistan justice system has become a mockery and a big farce in the Kulbhushan Jadhav trial. I want to assure the House that the government will do everything possible to get justice for Jadhav.
Estes will fill the District 4 seat of Mike Pompeo, who resigned to become Trump's Central Intelligence Agency director. They chose the state treasurer, Ron Estes , a Republican, over James Thompson , a Democrat and a civil rights lawyer.
Shania Twain has signed on for the April 24th episode of the reality series to serve as a key advisor to the finalists. After selling more than a 100 million albums worldwide, the Grammy-winner is about to release new music.
Some of the functions regulated by the nervous system include salivation, sweating, pupil size, digestive functions, and others. Pain relievers that you rub on the gums are not recommended since they wash out of the baby's mouth within minutes.
Trump also reversed course on an earlier vow to label Beijing a currency manipulator and slap punitive tariffs on Chinese imports. Under U.S. law, labeling a country as a currency manipulator can trigger an investigation and negotiations on tariffs and trade.
Bernie Sanders is the most popular senator , with a 75 percent approval rating. "I think that's a very good omen for the future". McConnell's approval rating, however, was slightly up compared to September when he had a 39 percent approval rating.
Union Home Minister Rajnath Singh had also assured that the Centre will do everything possible to save Jadhav. A Pakistani military court had recently sentenced 46-year-old Jadhav to death after declaring him a "spy".
Plaintiffs say the administration's refusal to publicize visitor records signals a stark rejection of transparency in government. Senior White House officials cited privacy and national security concerns for the decision not to release the visitor logs.
Both teams' form has been shaky in recent weeks, winning just two of their last five league games respectively. If we suffer again in these next five games then I am sure you will see a response.
Where to have Easter fun in the Panhandle
The Kamloops Golf and Country Club is letting kids run wild on the driving range for an Easter egg hunt at 11 a.m. on Sunday . There will be nearly hourly Easter egg hunts for kids of all ages on Friday, Saturday , Sunday and Monday.
Twins trounce Tigers bullpen, 11-5
Falling to 4-6 in 11 career starts against the Tigers , Gibson saw his earned-run average climb to 5.25 against them. With two out, Kepler crushed Sanchez's second offering into the right-field stands to give the Twins a 6-2 lead.