ADHD is a brain disorder, not a label for poor parenting, say scientists
17 February, 2017, 00:22
New study suggests that children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have different brain structure from those people without ADHD.
For the latest study, Hoogman and a team analysed the MRI scans of people aged four to 63, suffering from ADHD or not.
The results showed that the brains of participants with ADHD were smaller overall, and that volumes of five of the seven regions were also smaller: the caudate nucleus, putamen, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and hippocampus.
"The fact that the amygdala was a particular region where they saw the largest effect, or the biggest difference between patients and non-patients, speaks to the importance of emotional symptoms in ADHD", says Dr. Jonathan Posner, associate professor of psychiatry at Columbia University Medical Center, who wrote an editorial accompanying the study.
The results of the study, which involved 1,713 people with ADHD and 1,529 people without the condition, were published in The Lancet Psychiatry. It is the work of the ENIGMA Consortium, an worldwide multidisciplinary group that is investigating genetic and brain-imaging differences in psychiatric disorders. Researchers measured overall brain volume, but also the size of seven specific brain regions believed to be associated with the disorder.
"These differences are very small - in the range of a few percent - so the unprecedented size of our study was crucial to help identify these", Hoogman said. The team says that there is now a need for longitudinal studies that follow children with ADHD into adulthood and track brain changes over time.
"By the time they become adults, the differences in their brains are not significant anymore", she said.
The differences between the two types of brain are not monumental however, according to the study's lead author, Martine Hoogman.
After reviewing one scan per person, scientists found no effect from ADHD medications.
Hoogman points to other conditions where brain size differences are commonplace, such as major depressive disorder (MDD).
Given the differences in brain structure they discovered, Hoogman and colleagues suggest that ADHD should be treated like a brain disorder, and not just some label for poor parenting or hard children. Evidence has been revealed in scans that show structural differences in the brains of sufferers. "So because this study was orders of magnitude higher in terms of participants, and because it involved sampling broadly and internationally, it gives us more confidence". There was no difference between people who were taking ADHD medication and those who weren't.
Bush and Bill Clinton administrations; Edward Walker, who also served under Clinton; Daniel Kurtzer, who served under George W. He has also raised millions of dollars toward settlements, including one near the Palestinian city of Ramallah.
But at the same time , he said he would be unveiling a new executive action on national security next week. Trump also specifically attacked leaks to the press, and outlets who run information based on leaks.
This year, Villa pushed things further than ever-even though she was significantly more covered up than in years past. A singer who sported a President Trump-inspired dress to the Grammy Awards is seeing a sudden spike in sales.
Feinberg, who has no previous experience with intelligence or national security, to oversee an investigation into the leaks . What the newspaper does quote is a statement by a White House official, also anonymous, who says the allegations are false.
And if you've ever opened a Monopoly box created after 2013, you'll notice that the classic iron has been replaced with a cat. Back in January, Monopoly asked fans to vote on whether or not they should keep their iconic eight tokens.
McGraw coined the phrase while with the Mets before he came to Philadelphia and helped the Phils win a championship in 1980. Her aide, Novella Hinson, plugged the local favorite, the Philadelphia Eagles.
The Toronto, Canada-based company was founded in 1957 and booked $302 million in sales for the 12 months ended September 30, 2016. Proceeds from the IPO will be used to pay down debt and for working capital and general corporate purposes, the filing shows.
He has never played a full season during his three years in Miami, starting 35 of a possible 48 games. When looking at the draft Miami is best suited to wait until the second round to get a quality guard.