"We show that Imbrium was likely formed by an absolutely enormous object, large enough to be classified as a protoplanet", Schultz explained in a statement, adding that this is the first estimate to be based primarily on the moon's geological features, and that the findings might help explain why the Imbrium Basin is surrounded by unusual terrain including grooves and gashes. These experiments involved a 14-foot (4.25 meters) cannon that fired small bullets at up to about 11,200 miles per hour (18,000 km/h), while high-speed cameras and impact plates recorded details about the collisions.
"More than half of the asteroid was destroyed after hitting the moon", Schultz said. These rocks will continue to travel at high speeds, scouring the impact crater's surface in a non-radial fashion. During his experiments, Schultz noticed that in addition to the usual crater ejecta from the impact, the impactors themselves - if large enough - had a tendency to break apart when they first made contact with the surface. Because the fragments would have broken off from either side of the impactor, the groove trajectories could then be used to estimate its size. We see the same thing in our experiments that we see on the moon - grooves pointing up-range, rather than the crater.
Either way, the scientific name of the crater in question is the Imbrium Basin, and the new research, published Wednesday in Nature, suggests the asteroid that sculpted it was far bigger than previously thought.
Researchers have also found a second group of holes, which was apparently formed by pieces of the asteroid that impacted the moon. In fact, the impactor is so huge it can technically be classed as a protoplanet, a celestial object similar to the size of a moon.
With these experiments, Schultz was able to show that those grooves were likely formed by chunks of the impactor that sheared off on initial contact with the surface.
But Schultz and co-author David Crawford, of Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, may have solved the mystery.
"That's actually a low-end estimate", Schultz said. This colossal force fractured the moon where the impact marked permanent scars as chunks of lunar rock were ejected, scattering material into space for 300 miles.
The researchers, during the course of the study, also arrived at the possible impactors on the other basins of the moon such as Moscoviense and Orientale basins.
Schultz said previous estimates of the size of Mare Imbrium were based exclusively on computer models and yielded a size estimate of only about 50 miles (80 km) in diameter.
The research has several other implications.
The Apollo 16 mission "landed downrange from the Imbrium impact", wrote researchers. It may also suggest that based on the size of other basins on the moon, Mercury and Mars, the early billion years of the solar system were packed with asteroids the size of protoplanets. However, 3.8 billion years ago during a period known as the Late Heavy Bombardment, they frequently smashed the surfaces of the inner planets and their moons. If a protoplanet crashed into any surfaces, some of the chunks crumbling away after impact would have escaped any gravitational pull and be sucked into the Sun's orbit, subsequently colliding into any planet or moon that crossed its path.
"This was a time when Jupiter and Saturn were changing their position in the Solar System, and as a result it stirred the pot, so to speak", Schultz said.
Southwest began having intermittent problems with several computer systems after an outage around 3 p.m. on Wednesday. By Thursday afternoon, the crowds at Midway had dissipated but hundreds of suitcases remained in the baggage claim.
The court-approved intercept of the communications found the group had sworn an allegiance to the Islamic State. Authorities have said 85,000 police officers and soldiers will be patrolling during the competitions.
The euro was 0.1% higher against the dollar Thursday at $1.1027, while the buck fell 0.2% against the yen to ¥107.0610. That could keep stocks hemmed in, says Rich Weiss, senior portfolio manager at American Century.
One group asked for mandatory federal standards on self-driving technology to replace the voluntary guidelines now in place. Musk hyped the plan on social media during the past week, once tweeting he was staying up all night to finish the piece.
The campaign has been quick to say that they haven't made a decision and that there are other contenders for the position. Interviewed on Saturday in Mount Pleasant, Iowa, Vilsack said he would feel unsafe if Trump were to become president.
She added in another tweet , "We have never even all actually hung out together.it is just so, so random and such a useless lie". The couple is now on vacation in Northern Italy with their daughter Luna . "They are surrounded by family and close friends".
It might have sounded insane to us, but to millions and millions of Americans, this was music to their ears. Back in December, Moore told Business Insider he was confident Trump would become the Republican nominee.
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New Hampshire Republicans are strongly condemning a Trump supporter for saying that Hillary Clinton should be "shot for treason". Chris Christie recited a series of Clintons alleged misdeeds and led the crowd in shouts of Guilty! after each.
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He said that there were no specific targets for an attack, but that even disorganized groups have to be taken seriously. The group were talking about using weapons and guerrilla tactics to launch an attack during the Olympics, Moraes said.